Frederik Ludvig Norden, 1708-1742
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“Chart & Plan of the New Port of Alexandria”

The entrance of the new port is defended by two castles, of a bad Turkish structure, and which have nothing remarkable but their situation; since they have succeeded edifices very renowned in history. That which they call the Great Pharillon, has in the middle a tower, the summit of which terminates in a lanthorn, that they light up every night; but which does not give much light, because the lamps are ill supplied. This castle has been built upon the island of Pharos, which it occupies so entirely, that if there are still some remains of that marvel of the world, that Ptolemy had caused to be erected there, they continue concealed from the curious. It is the same with regard to the other castle, known under the name of the Little Pharillon. There are no foot-steps of the famous library, which, in the time of the Ptolemies, was considered as the most beautiful that had ever been. Each of these two islands is joined to the terra firma by a mole. That of the island of Pharos is extremely long. . . . The Pharillons and their moles, one at the right, the other at the left of the port, conduct you insensibly to the shore; but it is proper to advertize, that precisely at the entrance of the port, you have to pass rocks, some of which are underneath, and others above the surface of the water. It is necessary to avoid them with care. For this purpose they take Turkish pilots, appointed for this business, and who come out to meet vessels at a distance from the port . . . Nothing is more beautiful than to see, from thence, that mixture of antique and modern monuments, which, on whatever side you turn yourself, offer themselves to view. [Vol. 1, pp. 3-5]

“Two Views of the Superb Ruins of Luxor”

Wednesday, 11th of December [1737]. . . . We did not sail till about noon. . . . Afterwards we approached to the village of Ell Akalita, situated to the west, and almost opposite to Carnac, a name that is given to a vast extent of country, situated to the east of the Nile, and where one discovers, almost at every step, some very considerable ruins, which continue for the space of more than three leagues square, quite to Luxxor, or Lukoreen. . . . It was four o’clock in the afternoon, when I began to perceive, on the east side, an obelisk; and a little after I discovered a great quantity of peristyles, some gates, and antique edifices, dispersed confusedly here and there on the plain. These marks did not permit me to doubt one moment, but that what we saw were the remains of the ancient Thebes. I ordered our reys to land me there; but I could not obtain it, neither by good words, by promises, nor by menaces. He did not alledge at this time the fear that he had of the Arabs. All his excuse was, that there was no possibility of landing, on account of the islands, and banks of land, which hindered it. . . . I endeavoured to catch at a distance all that I was able. I drew those magnificent antiquities in all the situations that it was possible for me; and as they offered themselves to my sight. But, at my return, I landed at Carnac, and I did my utmost to add to my designs what might be wanting to them. In Plate IV, are represented different views of the antiquities of Luxxor. I had a great desire to draw also the hieroglyphics; with which the greatest part of the pieces of antiquity are covered; but it would have required more time, and more conveniency, to undertake such a work. [Vol. 2, pp. 61-65]

“View of the Town of Edfu”

We approached afterwards to Edfu, a city situated to the west of the Nile. It is the ancient Apollinopolis; and I have given a view of it. (Plate VI.) We find in this city a considerable monument of antiquity, and which is perfectly well preserved. The Turks have made a citadel of it, and some pretend that it was built originally for a like purpose; but, without designing to offend any one, I find that this edifice has rather the resemblance of a gate than citadel. . . . There is also at Edfu another antique monument, but it consists only in the ruins of an ancient temple of Apollo; and of which the greatest part is buried underground. The Arabs have made no scruple of employing what they have been able to take away from so respectable an edifice, in making some vile pigeon houses. I have given in the same (Plate VI.) the design of these ruins. [Vol. 2, pp. 91-92]

"Rocks of Granite" and "Chapels Cut in a Rock"